All posts by turg7269

About turg7269

I am a Minnesota woman who grew up on a farm in Swede Grove Township and spent much time in the Arizona Desert during the winters. For many years I was a professional communications writer. I had my own recipe column with a weekly publication and was the press secretary/assistant communication director for Minnesota's Secretary of State. I am a two time cancer survivor and am currently in remission from Multiple Myeloma a blood cancer.

Recipes: Bitter Fruit and Lemon Zucchini Bread

lemon

How many of us learned about the tartness of  lemons as small children when we happily accepted a slice from someone we trusted only to bite into the thing and have one eye slam shut in an uncontrollable muscle spasm as juices of potent sourness surrounded a shocked and outraged tongue that no matter how tightly it curled up just could not convince a traumatized throat to swallow until after all of your facial features skewed into a grimace that silently screamed, “Nasty Bad!!!”

Yes, lemons are the hypocrites of the fruit family.  Oh, they look all cheerful and bright and smell so very citrus and sweet.  However, inside, this sunny yellow fruit lurks uncompromising bitterness.  Lemons, unlike humans, do not get to choose whether to be bitter or not. Nature just thrust bitterness upon them. And, its bitterness makes the lemon unpalatable…until…sweetness is added.   Sweetness soothes a lemon’s bitterness until only fresh, tangy, delightful citrus flavor remains.

There is a saying that when life gives you lemons….make lemonade.  The thing is, you cannot make lemonade out of lemons alone.  To make lemonade, sweetener must be added. In the case of humans dealing with life’s lemons, sweetening up a bad situation requires human sugar….love, compassion, empathy and kindness.

A great way to show a friend, neighbor or family member you care is by bringing them a home-baked treat or by taking some excess garden zucchini off of their hands.  Lemon-Zucchini Bread will bring success to both of those endeavors.

Lemon-Zucchini Bread

Preheat oven to 350 degrees.  Grease and flour a loaf pan.

In a small bowl combine:

1  1/2 cups all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon baking powder
1/4 teaspoon salt

In a medium-sized mixing bowl beat together:

1/4 cup cooking oil
3/4 cup sugar
1 egg

Add:

2 Tablespoons fresh squeezed lemon juice
2 Tablespoons lemon zest
1 cup (packed)  finely shredded zucchini

Stir until completely combined.

Slowly stir dry ingredients into the zucchini mixture until just combined.  Do not over mix.

Put bread batter into the greased and floured loaf pan and bake for 50-55 minutes. Bread is done when a toothpick inserted into the center of the loaf comes out clean.

Remove bread from oven and cool in the pan for 15 minutes.  Remove loaf from pan by running a knife around the edge of the pan then inverting. Cool completely on a wire rack.

When cool, frost top of the loaf with lemon glaze.

Lemon Glaze:

1 cup powdered sugar
2 Tablespoon freshly squeezed lemon juice
2 teaspoon lemon zest

Other Zucchini Recipes on this blog:

Chocolate Spice Zucchini Cake
Zucchini Bread
Blueberry Zucchini Cake with Lemon Buttercream Frosting
Zucchini Boat Races 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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What Is On My Mind Today? What Did Confederate General Robert E. Lee Do After The War?

robert-e-lee
Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Union General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865.
 
After turning down several very lucrative officers to capitalize on his war fame, he chose to become the President of Washington University in Lexington, Virginia.  He was college president from 1865-1870.
 
The following is from the website of Washington and Lee University…
 
“Later that year (1865), Lee cautiously accepted the presidency of Washington College. Because of his leadership of the Confederate army, Lee worried he “might draw upon the College a feeling of hostility,” but also added that “I think it the duty of every citizen in the present condition of the Country, to do all in his power to aid in the restoration of peace and harmony.”
 
Lee incorporated the Lexington Law School into the college, encouraged the development of the sciences, and instituted programs in business instruction that led to the founding of the School of Commerce in 1906. He also inaugurated courses in journalism, which developed by 1925 into the School of Journalism (now the Department of Journalism and Mass Communications.) These courses in business and journalism were the first offered in colleges in the U.S. He also established an informal code of conduct that led to today’s Honor System. “We have but one rule here,” he wrote, “and it is that every student be a gentleman.” He oversaw the construction of a chapel that also housed his office, and a new home for him and his family. The former became Lee Chapel, which the University still uses for events and ceremonies and which has a museum. The latter became the Lee House, and the president and his or her family still live there.”
 
Lee died from heart disease, on Oct. 12, 1870, in his home in Lexington. He and his wife, Mary Custis Lee (a great-granddaughter of Martha Washington, wife of George Washington); his father, Revolutionary War hero “Light Horse Harry” Lee; and his seven children are buried in a mausoleum underneath Lee Chapel. Lee’s famous horse Traveler is buried, outdoors, near the wall of the chapel.
 
School trustees added his name to the institution soon after his death.  It was at that point that the college became Washington and Lee University. 
 
Robert E. Lee’s son George Washington Custis Lee became the school’s next college president.
 

What is on my mind today? Job Opening for White House Communications Director…..

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What is on my mind today….I hear there is an opening at the White House for a Communications Director.

What an opportunity for professional and personal growth! And, here I am with experience working with national, state and local press; both political parties; elected officials at state, county and local levels; and military generals. I confess, I liked the generals best.

I have written over a hundred press releases and can pump one out in minutes, in plain speak, while on the phone fielding press calls, with management standing over my shoulder.

My customer service remains professional and excellent even when subjected to a profane diatribe. I enjoy a certain amount of—goal orientated—chaos, and I have been known to successfully meet complex and difficult challenges that would arrest most folks in their tracks.

With my background as a preschool teacher, legislative staffer, assistant communications director and press secretary, I know from personal experience that the difference between toddlers and politicians is….height.

Where do I sent my resume…my country needs me!

Oh, that’s right, I’m multiple myeloma broken….darn.

What is On My Mind Today: Pintos, “The Magnificent Seven” and Marching Band

Pinto
The horse I had as a teenager looked much like this one.  Beauty was an Arabian-Pinto. 

Since I am now officially sick of hearing about politics, especially Russian hacking, instead of watching the morning news, I explore YouTube for videos of really beautiful horses.

This morning as I was watching YouTube videos about pinto horses, one video had music playing in the background.  At first the tune did not catch my attention, then, a memory from long, long ago came back.  I knew that tune and I knew it well!

While I was growing up, my parents would farm in Minnesota in the spring, summer and fall months. Then, in the winter they would move our whole family to Arizona. Minnesota winter’s were hard on my dad’s chronic rheumatoid arthritis. So from the time I was in 4th grade until I graduated from high school, I was the new kid in school… twice a year.

My class in Grove City, MN was just over 30 Scandinavian kids. My class at Cholla, High School in Tucson, Arizona was in the hundreds and Scandinavian students were an endangered species.

Now, transferring in and out of schools twice a year was sometimes a challenge, especially in the areas of math, band and choir.  It never failed that whatever math I was learning in Minnesota was never even close to what was being taught in Arizona.  Then, if I wanted to get my music credits, every year the music instructors in Arizona, made me try out to first just make the team, then, I had to perform a solo…vocal and with my clarinet….to determine chair placement.

As a very pale-skinned young white girl who literally just came off the farm, I stuck out like a sore thumb from among my Arizona peers.  I will never forget my first time in the Arizona Junior High School locker room, standing there buck naked waiting to shower after a physical education class, only to hear one of my African-American friends yell, “Girl, you is white, you is white all over!.”

After a confidence boosting experience like that,  imagine having to stand in front of your AAA class talented peers, whose choir performances more often than not brought home the state championship, and sing a solo your first week in a new school.   At least the clarinet playing was only in front of the band instructor.

My first solo for my choir instructor was the, Carol King song, “It’s Too Late.” When I finished, and before I had the chance to start to cry, my teacher hugged me, and asked if I planned to be the next Linda Ronstadt. He then made me a first chair alto.

The band tryout was easier, I usually practiced the song that I was given the night before and sailed through.  I didn’t like playing the high notes, so I generally aimed low….for third chair.  Eventually, the band instructor figured out my game, and switched me to the bass clarinet.  I loved playing bass clarinet.

The band in Grove City was probably no larger than my class, just over 30 students.  My band at Cholla was over one hundred students.  Every year we would march in the largest non-mechanized parade in the United States, the Tuscon Rodeo parade.

Each year we’d have to learn a new marching song with a western theme and go out onto the football field to practice our marching moves. Marching in rows and doing perfect pinwheel turns while in step with a hundred other young people came quite naturally to me.  I should have gone to West Point.

band 1

Our band was  huge.  We had rows and rows of clarinets, flutes, trumpets, trombones, french horns and a whole row of just tubas.  Our drum section was amazing, the head drummer was named Abel Hernandez.  He was in charge of the other drummers and was the best looking.  When those guys pounded all of their drums, it felt like the turf beneath your feet moved.

Our marching uniforms were always the same…blue jeans and a white shirt, tennis shoes and cowboy hat.  I loved this outfit, due to the fact that my mother felt that girls should never wear blue jeans.  So, this pair of blue jeans were the only ones I got all year.

Since, wearing blue jeans was the “in” style in those days, I wore them constantly.   Of course, going bra-less in peasant tops was also the thing in Arizona at that time, however, that did not workout for me.  As it turned out, my white Scandinavian skin was eventually offset by other assets attributed to my ethnicity.

band 2

At one Tucson Rodeo parade our band played the song that I heard this morning.  It is the theme song from the movie, “The Magnificent Seven.”  I will never forget marching next to Barbara Clark, playing my clarinet, having the instrument’s bell fall off, get chipped and be picked up by the gals behind me.  None of us missing a step!

Masterful steppers we were, and we had to be!  We started off with a high “kick step”, then spent the next several miles and hours trying not to step in horse manure from over a thousand horses and step around the dead horse that dropped in the middle of the parade route.

When I listen to that song, even all of these years later, I still can picture Abel thundering on the on his kettle drums, hear all of the guys hammering on their woodblocks, see Tim’s dancing trumpet leading the brass section, and feel the power and magic of all of our woodwinds playing that beautiful melody.

I think it is safe to say that a good time was had by all…well except for the dead horse.

Here is a link to the theme song from the movie “Magnificent Seven” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9iteRKvRKFA

 

What is On My Mind Today: El, Elvis and A Prison Break

Elvis-Presley-alive-787852

I have this friend, of many years, whose name is El.

El is a 93-year-old World War II veteran, who still carries the bullets in his body from a surprise attack during the battle for Luzon. One of our first conversations was about this very battle and how he’d been a Japanese prisoner of war for four hours.

I thought he was jesting with me, as nobody was a Japanese prisoner of war for just four hours.  The Japanese just did not operate that way during World War II….except in cases like his.

Not yet twenty years old with bullets in his back and legs, he spent over four hours laying on a jungle battlefield, as Japanese soldiers poked him and his fellow American soldiers with bayonets, to make sure they were all dead.  As he laid there, every once in a while he would hear a gunshot, and know that another boy would not being going home. El will tell you the only reason he survived was that he fell face down when he was hit and how hard it was not to flutter his eyelids when poked with a bayonet.

He and his fellow survivors, made it off the island and were given medical aid. Unfortunately, there was only one small plane to evacuate the boys and it seated four. So, El and one of his buddies were put into body bags, used for the dead, with only their heads sticking out and tied to the wing of the plane.  His only request was to be tied face down so that he could see where he was going.

As they flew over the Pacific ocean, at about 1000 feet, he could see the whole Pacific naval fleet, whirling around in the ocean waters beneath him.  He says he often wonders what their plane looked like on radar and is amazed that they were not shot down.

By the time he reached medical care, just a day or so after being hit, his leg was already black from infection.  He did not lose the leg, but he has scars the entire length of that leg that tell the story about how hard it was for him to keep it.

El is a very well known, popular, active member of the City of Forest Lake, MN.  He has been a fixture on their city streets for many years as he cruises town in his “scooter”, with a big American Flag flying behind him.

Winter, spring, summer and fall, regardless of rain, sleet, snow, fog, heat or cold, not much could stop El from getting where he wanted to go on that “scooter.” He was even given a special permit, by the city,  so he could legally drive on city streets.

El’s health had been more of a challenge as of late and he was recently moved into a nursing home. Today when I arrived for a visit, and to deliver several dozen of his favorite cookies, homemade gingersnaps,  I found him sound asleep, with his ever present”scooter” parked right beside his bed.

I always enjoy El, and again today we had a great chat.  I announced to him that I have decided that Elvis was murdered with codeine by Ginger Alden, and that Lyndon B. Johnson was behind the assassination of John F. Kennedy.  He gave me a broad smile, and I got the look I always get for my foolishness. Then, I was told to write a book.

I then asked him if he was still cruising around town on his “scooter.”  “No!”he fairly shouted. “They won’t let me out of this place without someone with me!”  His response surprised me some, knowing the man as well as I do.  And, I told him so.  I went on to explain that find it hard to believe he could not evade capture by mere nursing home staff.  After all, he has, under dire circumstances, escaped capture many times before. Then, I remembered that he was incarcerated…once.

During World War II, after El recovered from his wounds, he was sent back into service. By this time, the war in the Pacific had ended and El was sent to Japan.  He and his unit were on guard duty near one of the towns that had been blasted off of the face of this earth by atom bombs.

El and his buddies had a pretty great time in Japan. They were young, had survived the war and had money in their pockets.

In those days, when in a United States military uniform in Japan and you had too much fun, you would end up in a military prison.   The commander of this prison was a proud, obnoxious, arrogant, peacock-strutting of a man, who continually boasted that no one had or ever would escape his fenced stronghold of character development and repentance.

So, one night, after having enjoyed a goodly portion of fun, frivolity, frolic and fermentation, El and a buddy decided to break into the prison.  The success of their venture was made known to the hilarity of all the very next morning when there were two extra soldiers during roll call.

Well, the prison commander became positively apoplectic!  Both El and his commanding officer received their due portion of this man’s verbal wrath.  When the prison commander finished his tirade, El’s commander turned on El  threatening all sorts of dire consequences.  El was then marched to his commanding officer’s  jeep.  When they got into the jeep, the officer turned to El and said, “Ewert, you are such a dumb ass!” Then, burst out in laughter.

El and his commanding officer returned to their camp, went into the officer’s quarters and proceeded to spend the remainder of day consuming more than their share of beer toasting the success of El’s prison break-in.

And, yes, El has met Elvis

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El and I with matching hair-dos, during my cancer battle. 

 

 

 

 

Letter’s From Grandma Pat: Three-fingered Kenny and 4th of July Trivia

july 4th

Howdy!  Hope that your week is going great and that you are having a lot of fun during your summer vacation from school.   However, fun, no matter how inviting or exciting, is never an excuse for not being careful and safe.  Brains were not made by God to set on a shelf, they are meant to be used. You have a good one, use it.

Which brings me to the point of this week’s letter…not blowing off your fingers or toes, or blinding yourself with fireworks. Fireworks are great fun to see, hear and have during our nation’s birthday celebration on the 4th of July.  However, they are dangerous and demand respect. I know its fun to shoot off a firecracker or two, but safe first!

I once knew a kid in high school that did not have respect for the power of gun powder. He became known as “Three-finger, Kenny.”  And, those three fingers were just gnarled and twisted red stubs.  The only good thing was that he could never again be a right-handed nose-picker.

Fireworks have been enjoyed by humans for a very long time. The first recorded fireworks rockets were made in China around 600 A.D and were used to scare away evil spirits and bring good luck and happiness.  I guess if all evil was chased away,  there would be only good luck and happiness.

Before fireworks were invented, there were explosives and projectiles used as weapons for war. The Chinese were the first to develop “black powder.”  Black powder is the earliest known chemical explosive, and is made with sulfur, charcoal and saltpeter.

I know you know what sulfur and charcoal are, but what is saltpeter? Saltpeter is potassium nitrate. In addition, to helping make explosives, saltpeter has been used as a food preservative since the middle ages…for over 1500 years.  It is interesting that saltpeter was used to preserve food, since, at that time, it was made from bat poop, or people or animal urine.  In fact, during the Civil War, women collected urine to help make black powder, but that’s a different story.

The first fireworks that the Chinese made were not colored.  They boomed loudly, but only produced faint golden light and orange flashes.  It wasn’t until the 1830’s that Italians added trace amounts of metals and other chemicals to produce the bright colors we see in today’s fireworks. The Chinese are still the biggest producers of fireworks in the world.

Once seen, it wasn’t long before fireworks became very popular in Europe especially among kings, queens and nobility.  The earliest recorded fireworks display in England was in 1486 for King Henry VII’s wedding day.  French kings shot off fireworks, among other things, at their palaces. The Russian Czar, Peter the Great, celebrated the birth of his son with five hours of fireworks.

The first display of fireworks in the New World was in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1608.  The American colonists took to the idea of explosives for entertainment with their usual gusto and by 1731 the colony of Rhode Island banned fireworks due to, “mischievous use.”

It was John Adams, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and the second president of our country, who felt that our nation should use fireworks to celebrate independence from Great Britain.  On July 3, 1776, he wrote a letter to his wife Abigail that said, ” The day will be most memorable in the history of America.  I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great anniversary festival.  It ought to be solemnized with pomp and parade, bonfire and illuminations (fireworks) from one end of the continent to the other, from this time forward and forever more.”

Fireworks have been a part of 4th of July celebrations since the birth of our nation. Actually, even before the Declaration was signed, colonists used to celebrate the king’s birthday with the ringing of bells, bonfires, parades, fireworks and long public speeches. This tradition changed when the colonists declared their freedom from the English crown.  In 1776 many colonists held mock funerals for the English King to symbolize and celebrate the end of the monarch’s rule in America.

The city of Philadelphia, known as the city of brotherly love, got the colonists back on the high road when they held the first official independence day celebration in 1777. There were concerts, bonfires, parades, and the firing of cannon, muskets and fireworks. Also, in Philadelphia on July 8, the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence took place. The Pennsylvania Evening Post was the first newspaper to print the Declaration of Independence.

The July 4th holiday continued to be celebrated throughout Revolutionary War years. Soldiers fighting in the war, received a double ration of rum to recognize the day. The first state to make the day an official state holiday was Massachusetts in 1781.  The oldest, continuous, observance takes place Bristol, Rhode Island.  This city has had a 4th of July parade every year since 1785.  Thomas Jefferson hosted the first 4th of July celebration at the White House in 1801.

Folks did and do still take this patriotic holiday very seriously.  In Swan, Colorado, in 1884, angry miners blew up the post office, because it hadn’t supplied fireworks for their 4th of July festivities. I guess exploding dynamite isn’t as exciting as firecrackers and rockets.

Currently,  285.3 pounds of fireworks will be needed to supply the over 14,000 public fireworks displays and numerous private celebrations. American’s will spend $6.77 billion on food and will consume 155 million hot dogs.  To go with those hot dogs, $92 million will be spent on chips, $167.5 million on watermelon, and $341.4 million on beer.

But, is July 4th the real birthday of our country?

Not according to our second president John Adams.  The members of the Second Continental Congress from the 13 original colonies actually voted on July 2, 1776 to declare independence.  John Adams felt that July 2, should be the day for Independence Day celebrations.  The final draft of the declaration was approved by congressional committee on July 4.   It wasn’t until August 2 that all of the delegates finally signed the document.  However, when the document was sent to the printer, the date of July 4 was printed in big letters at the top of the sheets of paper.  So, July 4th it was!

The Declaration of Independence was actually designed by committee.  A committee of five to be exact.  The members were John Adams of Massachusetts, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Robert R. Livingston of New York and Thomas Jefferson of Virginia.  Thomas Jefferson wrote the actual document.  He was only 33 years old at the time.

The signers of the Declaration all knew that the penalty for revolting against the King was death.  Even knowing that they could be hung or shot for putting their names on the document, they signed it.  John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, signed it first, big and bold.  Fifty-six men, from the 13 original colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia and Georgia, signed.

It is not true that the declaration was the beginning of the Revolutionary War.  The first battles of Lexington and  Concord, Massachusetts, took place in April 1775.   Crispus Attucks, a fugitive African-American slave, was the first American to die when British soldiers fired upon the colonists in 1770, at the “Boston Massacre.”

The Americans were certainly out manned, gunned and financed during the Revolutionary War. At the time that the Declaration of Independence was issued the total population in the 13 original colonies was about 2.5 million people. (Our population today is over 300 million.)  In 1776 the city of London, alone, had a population of almost a million.

The cost of over eight years of war was immense.  Our nation spent over 151 million dollars to win independence from the king.  The war was also hard on the small population of the colonies. During the height of the war there were 80,000 men serving as militia or continental Army soldiers.  Over 8,000 soldiers were killed in battle, 17,000 died of disease, and 25,000 were wounded.  One in 20 able-bodied white males died. England had 24,000 soldiers killed in battle.

White men were not alone in serving in the Continental Army, so did African-American Slaves. Every state north of the Potomac river offered slaves their freedom in exchange for their service in the military.   While the northern colonies actively recruited black soldiers, the southern colonies were very opposed to the idea.  Between 5,000 to 8,000 African-Americans became veterans of this war. Black soldiers served as wagoners, cooks, waiters, craftsmen and carried weapons and fought.  Several all-black military units, commanded by white officers, saw action, fought bravely and gained a reputation as being, “the most neatly dressed, the best under arms, and the most precise in its maneuvers.”

It would be almost a century later and take an even more bloody Civil War to legally end the slavery of African-Americans.  Only then was the promise of freedom expressed in the Declaration of Independence no longer reserved for a select few, but became, as God always intended…a sacred human right for all people.

Here are some other interesting 4th of July facts:

The only president to have been born on the 4th of July was Calvin Coolidge, our 30th president born in 1872.

Three of the first five presidents died on the 4th.  They were John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe.  Oddly enough, Adams, the second president and Jefferson, the third, died on the same day in 1826, on our country’s 50th birthday.  Adams final thoughts were that all would be well because Jefferson still lived, he did not know that Jefferson had died several hours before him.

Richard Stockton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the only signer to recant his signature, swear allegiance, again, to King George III.  Traitor!

Every Independence Day the Liberty Bell in Philadelphia is tapped 13 times in honor of the original 13 colonies.  It cannot be rung, because of the crack in it.

Contrary to popular legend, Betsy Ross did not design the U.S. flag.   No one knows who sewed the first flag, but chances are it wasn’t Ms. Ross.  Her ancestors created the story a century after the revolution. This cute legend was kept going by being included in grade school books.

The modern 50-star flag was designed in 1958 by Robert G. Heft, a high school student. This teenager, from the state of Ohio, was given a history assignment to create a new national flag that included the recent statehood of Alaska and Hawaii. His flag design only earned him a B-minus from his teacher. However, after his design was chosen by President Eisenhower to be our nation’s new flag, the lad’s teacher changed his grade to an A.

Each color in our National flag has a different meaning. Red symbolized hardiness and valor. White is for purity and innocence. Blue stands for vigilance, perseverance and justice. The 50 stars represent the 50 states and the 13 stripes are for the 13 original colonies.

The patriotic song, “Yankee Doodle” was originally sung by British military officers before the Revolutionary War to mock the disorganized American colonists.

Our national anthem the, “Star Spangled Banner” was written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812 and is set to the tune of an old British bar, or pub, song called “To Anacreon in Heaven.” It did not become the official national anthem until 1931.

Presidents John Adams and Thomas Jefferson are responsible for the bald eagle becoming our national bird.  Benjamin Franklin, on the other hand, supported the wild turkey.

July 4th:

1944—United States troops fired a 1,100 gun salute at German lines in Normandy

1942—The United States air offensive against nazi-German began.

1939—The New York Yankees retire the first player’s uniform…Lou Gehrig #4

1914—The first motorcycle race in the United State took place.  It was 300 miles long.

1911—Ty Cobb goes 0 for 4 and ends a 40 game hit streak.

1911—Ed Walsh, White Sox, ends Ty Cobb’s 40-game hitting streak.

1895—The song “America the Beautiful” is published.

1894—Elwood Haynes successfully tests one of the first American made cars.  Top speed               was six mph.

1888—Prescott, Arizona holds the first organized rodeo competition.

1884—The Statute of Liberty is presented to the United States in Paris.

1828—Construction begins on the first United States passenger Railroad the  B and O                     (Baltimore-Ohio).

1817—Work began to build the Erie Canal.

I hope you have a wonderful time, safely, celebrating the 4th of July.  There really is a lot about our nation to celebrate.  And, despite all of the differences that our country seems to have at this time, I still believe the words of President John F. Kennedy hold true, “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, to assure the survival and success of liberty.”

Sending lots of love and hugs,

Grandma Pat